There are different
types of relative constructions in Shingazidja:
With a tense: (sha, ya, la / wa,
za) or (shi, yi, li / zi ) or with the negative tsi or tso.
Without a tense (General Relative Construction)
3. With the stem
The relative particle
follows the tense prefix, but precedes the object prefix). The same kind of the negative construction can be made with tsu, tso,
without any tense.
He who arrives
Nguo zakahufulwa Clothes which were washed
huribalia Car which will take us
The one who came
I don't know them
Note that the infinitive
HU is retained with monosyllabic verbs with this relative
Mimi na hadja
I who arrived
Wewe wa hadja
you who arrived
Yeye ya hadja
he/she who arrived
Sisi ra piha
we who cooked
Nyinyi mwa piha
you (pl.) who cooked
Wawo wa piha
they who cooked
We will consider relative constructions referring to the subject of the
sentence, and cite examples agreeing with noun Class.
Class l Ye
mdru ya-pvira ho ndziani ye mlimadji.
The person passing by on the road is a farmer.
Class 2 Wo
wandru wa-hadja wala wadjeni.
The people who arrived were guests.
Class 3 Wo
mkatre wa-kaya wa-hulwa wukaya mwiyi.
The bread which was purchased was bad.
Class 4 Ye
Mizigo ya-baliwa yi-kaya mindji.
The loads which were brought were numerous.
Class 5 Le
gari li-djoka huribalia lo-kuwu
The car which will take us is big.
Class 6 Ye
matwabibu ya-hadja ya marekani.
The physicians who came are americans.
Class 7 Ye
shio shi-somehao nda shinu.
The book which is suitable is this one.
Class 8 Ye
ziri zi-djo hubaliwa zindji.
The chairs which will be brought are many.
Class 9 Ye
hazi yakaya hu-yi-vumbua inikiwa
The job which he was talking about was given to someone else.
Class 10 Ze
nguo za-kaya za-fulwa zitrawa.
The clothes which were washed have disappeared.
Class ll Wo
wali wu-djoka hupihwa kona hutosha.
The rice which will be cooked will not be enough.
It is formed by inserting tsi or
tsu after the subject prefix and eliminating the tense prefix.
walimadji wa-fanyao hazi
walimadji watso-hufanya hazi
Farmers who do not work
walimadji wa-fanya hazi
walimadji watsu-fanya hazi
Farmers who do not work
walimadji waka-hufanya hazi walimadji
Farmers who do not work
Study the following
walimadji watso-hufanya hazi Farmers who do
A bell that does not ring
it out of order?
A useless book
Wandru watso-huzima mdru People
who don't put out fires
Because they're careless?
The examples in the
preceding section were constructions in which the relative particle referred to
the subject of the clause. The relative particle may also refer to the object of
the clause. Compare these sentences:
shahula shabaki ngashidjo hurumilwa maudu.
The food which
remained over will be used tomorrow.
We can say this
sentence comes from uniting two sentences:
Ye shahula shibaki. ( ye shahula icho) ngashidjo hurumilwa maudu.
remained (that food )
shahula washibakisha ngashidjo hurumilwa maudu.
The food which they
left over will be used tomorrow.
This sentence also
comes from uniting two sentences:
Wabakisha shahula. ( ye shahula icho) ngashidjo hurumilwa maudu.
In the first sentence,
shahula is the subject of the clause.
There is no object.
In the second
sentence, wowo (they) is the subject
of the clause, shahula is the object.
Study these examples:
Ye zombo rizihutadjiao, msimanyu, na mkasi, na shononde.
The equipment we need is a saw, scissors and a knife.
The clothes I am going to wear are new.
The leader I am going to follow knows the way.
things should be noted when making constructions with the relative particle
referring to the object of the clause:
1. The noun object
always precedes the verb construction.
Unlike in most bantu languages where nothing can stand between the noun
object and the verb construction, in shingazidja, whether or not the subject of
the clause is a noun, it must precede the verb construction as follow:
Noun object + noun subject + verb construction
Ye mbuda fundi ya-yi-balia yimfayi ndro
The stick which the guide carried was very suitable for him.
The object prefix is included in the verb construction as well as the
relative particle. Unlike in some batu languages where the object prefix may
optionally be omitted, in shingazidja its inclusion is necessary for the
In the the present
progressive, the components are: Subject
prefix + verb stem + ao (present progressive suffixe).
If an object prefix is included, it comes, as always, immediately before
the verb stem and follows the subject prefix.
Wa zi fumao They
who are hunting them
I who am telling you
we who are teaching him/her
The noun to which the
relative particle refers must not be separated from the verb construction:
people who hunt
"yours sincerely"--lit. yours,
the one who loves you; a phrase
used in letters as a final
The infinitive HU
is dropped in monosyllabic verbs:
the coming days, the future
All the above examples
show the relative particle referring to the subject. The same construction is
used when referring to the object:
Ye shio ni
book which I read
Note that: the word to
which the relative refers (object of the clause), is included in the verb
construction; and the subject is also in the verb construction, in the form of
subject prefix to the verb construction.
Utsilamwe ye mwana ikao ngusiuho.
Don t awaken the child who is sleeping.
Ngarilindao wowadjeni ikao kwadjadja.
We are waiting for the guests who have not arrived.
Referring to the
object of the clause:
Ye hazi ikao
ndjaifanya djana, lazima niyifanye lewo.
The work which I did not do yesterday I must do today.
The relative particle with "ikao"
in long, complicated sentences:
Walimi shamba shema kabisa ikao sisi rashiona karidja
paro wona hama ndisho homenshini hatru.
They have cultivated
an extremely nice farm which we who looked at it have never seen in our lives.
Class the ikao
construction with phrases equivalent to "in which", "whose",
"about whom", etc.
ze swifa zahao
ye ntsi pia.
We visited a village whose reputation has spread over the whole country.
wakaya wawaha banga
hifadhwi ze mbeu.
The villagers have built a store in which they will keep seed
wandru iako ze habari zahao rizisomo harumwa le gazeti.
These are the people about whom we read in the newspaper.
may also be used to express
Linu nde le
gari ikao ngaridjo
This is the vehicle by which we can transport the crops.
Books are tools by which we get an education.
There are three types
of adverbial relatives:
yesaa, -eka, pvo, haina
wakati/haina saa. , referring to TIME:
nda-pvo, ndi-ho, ndi-mo referring to PLACE, or LOCATION:
referring to MANNER:
Any of the relative
constructions discussed earlier can be used with each of these adverbial
relatives, and examples are given with each type below.
The use of "yesaa"
(litt: at the hour)
and "-eka" (if)
in the two first sentence supposes a repetitive or habitual action.
-eka is in agreement with the
subject ( neka
= when I, weka = when you, yeka =
when he/she, reka = when we,
mweka = when you, weka = when they ) and
the succeeding verb is in the infinitive form. "Yesaa"
is frequently used with the future tense.
Yesaa nifanyao mkatre miuhutajia nganu
or Neka hufanya
mkatre miuhutadjia nganu.
When I make bread, I need flour.
Yesaa rilao madjwai, sihuyatria shingo
or reka hula madjwai, sihuyatria shingo.
When we eat eggs, we put on salt.
Yesa wadjo hubaki, ngwadjohenda homsiruni.
When they will rest they will go to Dar es Salaam.
Pvo is frequently used with past tense.
wahadja, rende riwalaulia
he came, we went
to salute them
wo mhogo pvo
She gave him the
he asked for it.
they instulted him
When we went to Kenya we saw many animals
The relative is sometimes
used with haina wakati or
haina saa for "every
time" or "whenever. Sometimes,
shingazidja speakers add "ikao
" for the sake of language
eloquence and notice the change of tense from "yahenda"
to "hende" in the first
sentence and the same thing for the
Haina wakati yahenda ho mdjini yetso wonana nday ne mdru wuo.
Haina wakati ikao hende ho mdjini yetso wonana nday ne mdru wuo.
Every time he goes to
town he meets that person
Hain saa nahenda ho dukani mitsolihundra libulwa.
Haina saa ikao tsende ho dukani mitsolihundra libulwa.
Whenever I go to the shop I find it opened.
Pvanu ndapvo lebundjilio likohufanyiha
haina mwizi (mwezi).
This is the very place where a meeting is held each month.
Pvo ndze mwahe nyumba ikao ndapvo rawonana
djuzi, pvakaya wandru wendji.
Outside the house where we met day before yesterday there were many people.
Pvohari ndapvo she isima shidjo hutsimbwa.
In the center, that is where the well will be dug.
Narende hohatru iho rikohuenshi.
Let's go to our place where we live.
Harumwa ye ntsi ikao ndiho nanguha ngapvo
In the country from where I come there are many factories.
Hunu ndiho ikao
ngodjoka hutsaha urahafu zaidi, maudu.
That is where more cleanliness will be required tomorrow.
Ho isimani hunu ndiho ye nyuha
There in the pit that is where the snake lives.
Hunu ndiho rienshio.
This is where we live.
Haina mahala rahenda
sitsoishia ze swifa zahe mdru wuwo.
Wherever we go we hear the reputation of that person.
mahala ikao ndiho wadjoka huwaha ye lapitali ya nyumeni.
They showed us the place where they will build the new hospital.
hema ya hatru pvo mlimadju ikao ndapvo pvakaya ye marunku.
We pitched our tent on the mountain where there was an area of brushwood.
Hahulu sanduku ikao ndiyo yadjoka hutria ze nguo
She has bought a suitcase where she will put her clothes.
It is used as the relative particle referring to manner or likeness, and
its English equivalent (how, as) varies, depending on the context.
Unonese ye heli ukohulima
Show me how you cultivate (i.e. the manner in which you do it).
Angalia ye namna nifanyao hazi.
Angalia ye heli nifanyao hazi
Look at how I do the job.
Ye heli (namna) naishia,
ngudjo hudja pvanu djioni.
As I haard it, she will arrive this afternoon.
hali ye hazi ilio ndziro, ngwadjo hutimizi haraka.
As hard as they work, they will finish early.
Hama nde heli naishia, ngudjo hudja pvo masihu.
As I heard it, she will arrive in the evening.
Fanya hama neheli wandzao.
Or: Fanya wandzao.
Do as you like.
Reha ye madji kiasi udjo hushinda.
Draw as much water as you can.
Mrentsi yapvehe le fumo ye kiasi yadjo hushinda.
Let him throw the spear as far as he can.
Ngamdjo hosa ye kiasi ndjo hushinda.
I will clean as well as I can.
Notice this comparison
of degrees: "the deeper...the more..."
He kiasi le gali lidjo hutsimbwa, nde kiasi yehe
ye madji yadjo hundjia.
The deeper the pit will be, the more water will be available.
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