The Concept of Location



Locative or Adverbial Nouns

     The so-called Locative or Adverbial Nouns, were introduced with other noun classes together with their nominal and pronominal prefixes and with some examples of their uses. Further examples have been given in paragraphs on pronouns, adjectives, locative relative particles, etc.


The concept of location as a noun serving as subject or object in sentences ("In-the-house is nice", or "I like the in-the-house-place") is foreign to speakers of European languages, and needs more attention than some of the other constructions in this language. We hope the examples given here will help to clarify the issue. Only time can make it feel natural to use these classes (time and practice, that is!)


Location words or phrases.


In considering location as a noun, we must first of all expand the list of items that can function in the same way as location nouns. Here we find expressions that are not nouns at all, but they are location words or phrases. We could call them "the Adverbial Place" Classes and list them in categories:


1. adverbial nouns: mahalani, mdjini, mezani, etc.

                                  in place,    in town, on the table


2. Simple adverbs: ntsini, djuu, karibu, etc.

                              Under, above, close/near


3. Adverbial phrases like ntsini mwe meza, mwoni mwa ye shio, etc.

                                           Under the table,    inside the book


4. Adverbial pronouns like pvala, hunu, hatru, pvanu, etc.


Agreements with these location words are required in pronouns, adjectives, and verb constructions; see the lists in paragraph 11.


ADJECTIVAL AGREEMENTS with the Adverbial Place Classes:



With adverbial nouns:


mahalani mandrwadji another place


bandani kotsi uhavu in the valley it is not dry


mahalani  matrulivu a quiet place


mahalani ya huwaha a place to build on


homdjini pia everywhere in town


nyumbani ndrahafu at home (where it is) clean

 With simple adverbs:

 Pvondze hudjisa

 Ndani nicanfu inside it is dirty 

With adverbial phrases:

 Djumwa wo mlima hudjisa  on top of the hill it is nice

 Ho bandandi ngapvo joto kali in the valley where it is very hot

 Hule no mro ngiho huhavu away from the river it is dry

 v     With adverbial pronouns:

  Ho mahalani matrulivu hula there in a quiet place

  Ho hatru hudjisa (hwema) our place is nice

 Sometimes no antecedent is stated, and only the adjectival phrase is given.

  This is particularly true with HO + noun + ni (location indicator)

  Ho ndziani                  (somewhere) on the road

    Ho madjini              place having water

    Ho tropveni             at the muddy place



With adverbial nouns

  Ho mahalani hunu hudjaya wandru.         

  This place                 is full of people.


   Kapva djakaya        nguo    homezani.     

There was no                cloth    on the table.

   Ho bandani      huwalwa minazi.    

In the valley,     coconut trees were planted.

 Hondani hatru hutrilwa zana zanyumeni.    

New equipment (furniture?) has been put into our house.

 Pvakaya     biashara ya magendrwa     homdjini ze ntsihu zapvira. 

There was        black marketing                in town in by-gone days.


Simple adverbs

  Pvawalwa maua pvondze mwe nyumba.     

Flowers have been planted in front.

 Pvawahwa paya ho dingoni

A kitchen has been built in back.

 Ngapvadjo hustimbwa isima, pvo hari.       

In the center, a well will be dug.

 Ho dingoni, ngapvadjo hukaya nafasi yawuhantsi magari.           

At the side, there will be space for parking cars.

 Baada ye mawaha, ngapvadjo hutrilwa ye zana.   

After building, there furniture will be put.


 With adverbial pharases


Here we have a typical construction of  ADVERB+( NI)+MWA .  MWA is fromed of the M  indication a location prefix and WA  indicating  OF (possessive).


Djuu mwa ye meza pvakaa itupa.                        

There was a bottle on the table.

 Kapvatsi mbahindru      ho dingoni mwa ye nyumba.

There is nothing                    behind the house.

 Ngapvo      wandru wendji     pvondze mwa ye nyumba.                                                                     

There are    crowds of people    outside the house.

 Iladhimu pvakaye jaride pvondze mwa ye nyumba.                                                                           

There should be a garden in front of the house.


With adverbial pronouns: possessives and demonstratives

  Pvafu simba hunu (pvanu).                                   

A lion died here.

 Hunu hawo kapvatsi trama.

There is no maize here at their place.

   Ngapvadjo hukaya baridi ho hangu ze ntsihu zidjao.                                                                          

It will be cold in your area in days to come.

 Ngapvadjo hubaki wandru washashi hunu ekaya rirenge uvumzi.                                                     

There will be few people left (here) when we have holidays.

 Ho hawo ikao pvakaya wandru wendji wanwundjiliana djuzi, kapvatsi nkunu hapvasa.                  

At their place where a crowd of people gathered the day before yesterday, there is no grass now.


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