The so-called Locative or Adverbial Nouns, were
introduced with other noun classes together with their nominal and pronominal
prefixes and with some examples of their uses. Further examples have been given
in paragraphs on pronouns, adjectives, locative relative particles, etc.
The concept of location as a noun serving as subject or object in
sentences ("In-the-house is nice", or "I like the
in-the-house-place") is foreign to speakers of European languages, and
needs more attention than some of the other constructions in this language. We
hope the examples given here will help to clarify the issue. Only time can make
it feel natural to use these classes (time and practice, that is!)
In considering location as a noun, we must first of all expand the list
of items that can function in the same way as location nouns. Here we find
expressions that are not nouns at all, but they are location words or phrases.
We could call them "the Adverbial
Place" Classes and list them in categories:
1. adverbial nouns: mahalani, mdjini, mezani,
place, in town, on the
2. Simple adverbs: ntsini, djuu, karibu,
3. Adverbial phrases
like ntsini mwe meza, mwoni
mwa ye shio, etc.
Under the table, inside
4. Adverbial pronouns
like pvala, hunu, hatru, pvanu,
Agreements with these location words are required in pronouns,
adjectives, and verb constructions; see the lists in paragraph 11.
bandani kotsi uhavu
in the valley it is not dry
matrulivu a quiet place
mahalani ya huwaha
a place to build on
everywhere in town
at home (where it is) clean
inside it is dirty
Djumwa wo mlima hudjisa on top of the hill it is nice
Ho bandandi ngapvo joto kali in the valley where it is very hot
Hule no mro ngiho huhavu away
from the river it is dry
With adverbial pronouns:
mahalani matrulivu hula there in a quiet place
hatru hudjisa (hwema) our place is nice
antecedent is stated, and only the adjectival phrase is given.
is particularly true with HO + noun + ni
(somewhere) on the road
place having water
at the muddy place
Ho mahalani hunu hudjaya wandru.
is full of people.
There was no
cloth on the
In the valley,
coconut trees were planted.
Hondani hatru hutrilwa zana zanyumeni.
New equipment (furniture?)
has been put into our house.
biashara ya magendrwa
homdjini ze ntsihu zapvira.
There was black marketing
in town in by-gone days.
Pvawalwa maua pvondze mwe
Flowers have been planted in front.
Pvawahwa paya ho dingoni
A kitchen has been built in back.
Ngapvadjo hustimbwa isima, pvo hari.
In the center, a well will be dug.
Ho dingoni, ngapvadjo hukaya nafasi yawuhantsi magari.
At the side, there will be space for parking
Baada ye mawaha, ngapvadjo hutrilwa ye zana.
After building, there furniture will be put.
Here we have a typical construction of ADVERB+(
NI)+MWA . MWA is fromed of the M
indication a location prefix and WA indicating
Djuu mwa ye meza pvakaa itupa.
There was a bottle on the table.
dingoni mwa ye nyumba.
There is nothing behind
wandru wendji pvondze mwa ye nyumba.
crowds of people outside
pvakaye jaride pvondze mwa ye nyumba.
There should be a garden in front of the house.
Pvafu simba hunu (pvanu).
A lion died here.
There is no maize here at their place.
Ngapvadjo hukaya baridi ho hangu ze ntsihu zidjao.
It will be cold in your area in days to come.
hubaki wandru washashi hunu ekaya rirenge uvumzi.
There will be few people left (here) when we
hawo ikao pvakaya wandru wendji wanwundjiliana djuzi, kapvatsi nkunu hapvasa.
At their place where a crowd of people gathered
the day before yesterday, there is no grass now.
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